更好的Scala I/O: better-files

目录 [−]

  1. 实例化
  2. 文件读写
  3. Stream和编码
  4. 与Java交互
  5. 模式匹配
  6. 通配符
  7. 文件系统操作
  8. UNIX DSL
  9. 文件属性
  10. 文件比较
  11. 压缩解压缩
  12. 轻量级的ARM (自动化的资源管理)
  13. Scanner
  14. 文件监控
  15. Akka 风格的文件监控

对于使用Scala的程序员来说, I/O操作如文件的读写通常使用scala.io.Source来实现。但是这个类功能还是欠缺的,而且功能混乱,因此在Scala类库的增强提案(Scala IO fix-up/overhaul)中如何改进它争论相当的大,甚至有些开发者提议将这个库废掉,让社区实现的第三方来完成这方面的工作,或者引导开发者使用java.nio来实现I/O操作。

当然,作为一个使用Scala的公司来说,可能会自己实现了辅助的I/O操作的方法, 比如类似FileUtils等名称的一些类。Java程序员可能已经熟悉了使用java.nio.file.FilesGuavaApache common-iojodd FileUtil等开源I/O库,但是如果使用Scala进行I/O操作时,虽然还是可以使用这些Java I/O库,但是毕竟还是不是那么纯粹,因此,我们可以关注一下Scala实现的I/O库,比如sbt ioAmmonite-Opsbetter-files等。

本文为你推荐better-files

为什么推荐better-files呢?让我们看看它的功能,就明白它的简单而强大了,就像一把I/O操作的瑞士军刀。

要使用better-files,只需加入下面的依赖:

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libraryDependencies += "com.github.pathikrit" %% "better-files" % version

它对Java NIO库进行了包装,不依赖其它的第三方库。

以下介绍摘译自better-files的官方文档

实例化

下面的实例都是等价的,才可以采用多种方式得到File对象。可以通过字符串、String interpolator, Java File、隐式转换、定义的常量和操作符"/"等产生File对象。

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import better.files._
import java.io.{File => JFile}
val f = File("/User/johndoe/Documents") // using constructor
val f1: File = file"/User/johndoe/Documents" // using string interpolator
val f2: File = "/User/johndoe/Documents".toFile // convert a string path to a file
val f3: File = new JFile("/User/johndoe/Documents").toScala // convert a Java file to Scala
val f4: File = root/"User"/"johndoe"/"Documents" // using root helper to start from root
val f5: File = `~` / "Documents" // also equivalent to `home / "Documents"`
val f6: File = "/User"/"johndoe"/"Documents" // using file separator DSL
val f7: File = home/"Documents"/"presentations"/`..` // Use `..` to navigate up to parent

文件读写

可以一行搞定:

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val file = root/"tmp"/"test.txt"
file.overwrite("hello")
file.appendLine().append("world")
assert(file.contentAsString == "hello\nworld")

类似C++/Shell风格的读写,和上面的功能一样:

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file < "hello" // same as file.overwrite("hello")
file << "world" // same as file.appendLines("world")
assert(file! == "hello\nworld")

或者这样:

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"hello" `>:` file
"world" >>: file
val bytes: Array[Byte] = file.loadBytes

流式接口风格:

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(root/"tmp"/"diary.txt")
.createIfNotExists()
.appendLine()
.appendLines("My name is", "Inigo Montoya")
.moveTo(home/"Documents")
.renameTo("princess_diary.txt")
.changeExtensionTo(".md")
.lines

Stream和编码

产生迭代器:

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val bytes : Iterator[Byte] = file.bytes
val chars : Iterator[Char] = file.chars
val lines : Iterator[String] = file.lines
val source : scala.io.BufferedSource = file.newBufferedSource // needs to be closed, unlike the above APIs which auto closes when iterator ends

编解码:

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val content: String = file.contentAsString // default codec
// custom codec:
import scala.io.Codec
file.contentAsString(Codec.ISO8859)
//or
import scala.io.Codec.string2codec
file.write("hello world")(codec = "US-ASCII")

与Java交互

转换成Java对象:

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val file: File = tmp / "hello.txt"
val javaFile : java.io.File = file.toJava
val uri : java.net.uri = file.uri
val reader : java.io.BufferedReader = file.newBufferedReader
val outputstream : java.io.OutputStream = file.newOutputStream
val writer : java.io.BufferedWriter = file.newBufferedWriter
val inputstream : java.io.InputStream = file.newInputStream
val path : java.nio.file.Path = file.path
val fs : java.nio.file.FileSystem = file.fileSystem
val channel : java.nio.channel.FileChannel = file.newFileChannel
val ram : java.io.RandomAccessFile = file.newRandomAccess
val fr : java.io.FileReader = file.newFileReader
val fw : java.io.FileWriter = file.newFileWriter(append = true)
val printer : java.io.PrintWriter = file.newPrintWriter

以及

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file1.reader > file2.writer // pipes a reader to a writer
System.in > file2.out // pipes an inputstream to an outputstream
src.pipeTo(sink) // if you don't like symbols
val bytes : Iterator[Byte] = inputstream.bytes
val bis : BufferedInputStream = inputstream.buffered
val bos : BufferedOutputStream = outputstream.buffered
val reader : InputStreamReader = inputstream.reader
val writer : OutputStreamWriter = outputstream.writer
val printer : PrintWriter = outputstream.printWriter
val br : BufferedReader = reader.buffered
val bw : BufferedWriter = writer.buffered
val mm : MappedByteBuffer = fileChannel.toMappedByteBuffer

模式匹配

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/**
* @return true if file is a directory with no children or a file with no contents
*/
def isEmpty(file: File): Boolean = file match {
case File.Type.SymbolicLink(to) => isEmpty(to) // this must be first case statement if you want to handle symlinks specially; else will follow link
case File.Type.Directory(files) => files.isEmpty
case File.Type.RegularFile(content) => content.isEmpty
case _ => file.notExists // a file may not be one of the above e.g. UNIX pipes, sockets, devices etc
}
// or as extractors on LHS:
val File.Type.Directory(researchDocs) = home/"Downloads"/"research"

通配符

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val dir = "src"/"test"
val matches: Iterator[File] = dir.glob("**/*.{java,scala}")
// above code is equivalent to:
dir.listRecursively.filter(f => f.extension == Some(".java") || f.extension == Some(".scala"))

甚至使用正则表达式:

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val matches = dir.glob("^\\w*$")(syntax = File.PathMatcherSyntax.regex)

文件系统操作

文件系统操作也非常的便利:

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file.touch()
file.delete() // unlike the Java API, also works on directories as expected (deletes children recursively)
file.clear() // If directory, deletes all children; if file clears contents
file.renameTo(newName: String)
file.moveTo(destination)
file.copyTo(destination) // unlike the default API, also works on directories (copies recursively)
file.linkTo(destination) // ln file destination
file.symbolicLinkTo(destination) // ln -s file destination
file.{checksum, md5, sha1, sha256, sha512, digest} // also works for directories
file.setOwner(user: String) // chown user file
file.setGroup(group: String) // chgrp group file
Seq(file1, file2) >: file3 // same as cat file1 file2 > file3
Seq(file1, file2) >>: file3 // same as cat file1 file2 >> file3
file.isReadLocked / file.isWriteLocked / file.isLocked
File.newTemporaryDirectory() / File.newTemporaryFile() // create temp dir/file

UNIX DSL

甚至提供了UNIX命令风格的操作:

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import better.files_, Cmds._ // must import Cmds._ to bring in these utils
pwd / cwd // current dir
cp(file1, file2)
mv(file1, file2)
rm(file) /*or*/ del(file)
ls(file) /*or*/ dir(file)
ln(file1, file2) // hard link
ln_s(file1, file2) // soft link
cat(file1)
cat(file1) >>: file
touch(file)
mkdir(file)
mkdirs(file) // mkdir -p
chown(owner, file)
chgrp(owner, file)
chmod_+(permission, files) // add permission
chmod_-(permission, files) // remove permission
md5(file) / sha1(file) / sha256(file) / sha512(file)
unzip(zipFile)(targetDir)
zip(file*)(zipFile)

文件属性

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file.name // simpler than java.io.File#getName
file.extension
file.contentType
file.lastModifiedTime // returns JSR-310 time
file.owner / file.group
file.isDirectory / file.isSymbolicLink / file.isRegularFile
file.isHidden
file.hide() / file.unhide()
file.isOwnerExecutable / file.isGroupReadable // etc. see file.permissions
file.size // for a directory, computes the directory size
file.posixAttributes / file.dosAttributes // see file.attributes
file.isEmpty // true if file has no content (or no children if directory) or does not exist
file.isParentOf / file.isChildOf / file.isSiblingOf / file.siblings

chmod:

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import java.nio.file.attribute.PosixFilePermission
file.addPermission(PosixFilePermission.OWNER_EXECUTE) // chmod +X file
file.removePermission(PosixFilePermission.OWNER_WRITE) // chmod -w file
assert(file.permissionsAsString == "rw-r--r--")
// The following are all equivalent:
assert(file.permissions contains PosixFilePermission.OWNER_EXECUTE)
assert(file(PosixFilePermission.OWNER_EXECUTE))
assert(file.isOwnerExecutable)

文件比较

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file1 == file2 // equivalent to `file1.isSamePathAs(file2)`
file1 === file2 // equivalent to `file1.isSameContentAs(file2)` (works for regular-files and directories)
file1 != file2 // equivalent to `!file1.isSamePathAs(file2)`
file1 =!= file2 // equivalent to `!file1.isSameContentAs(file2)`

排序:

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val files = myDir.list.toSeq
files.sorted(File.Order.byName)
files.max(File.Order.bySize)
files.min(File.Order.byDepth)
files.max(File.Order.byModificationTime)
files.sorted(File.Order.byDirectoriesFirst)

压缩解压缩

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// Unzipping:
val zipFile: File = file"path/to/research.zip"
val research: File = zipFile.unzipTo(destination = home/"Documents"/"research")
// Zipping:
val zipFile: File = directory.zipTo(destination = home/"Desktop"/"toEmail.zip")
// Zipping/Unzipping to temporary files/directories:
val someTempZipFile: File = directory.zip()
val someTempDir: File = zipFile.unzip()
assert(directory === someTempDir)
// Gzip handling:
File("countries.gz").newInputStream.gzipped.lines.take(10).foreach(println)

轻量级的ARM (自动化的资源管理)

Auto-close Java closeables:

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for {
in <- file1.newInputStream.autoClosed
out <- file2.newOutputStream.autoClosed
} in.pipeTo(out)

better-files提供了更加便利的管理,因此下面的代码

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for {
reader <- file.newBufferedReader.autoClosed
} foo(reader)

可以写成:

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for {
reader <- file.bufferedReader // returns ManagedResource[BufferedReader]
} foo(reader)
// or simply:
file.bufferedReader.map(foo)

Scanner

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val data = t1 << s"""
| Hello World
| 1 true 2 3
""".stripMargin
val scanner: Scanner = data.newScanner()
assert(scanner.next[String] == "Hello")
assert(scanner.lineNumber == 1)
assert(scanner.next[String] == "World")
assert(scanner.next[(Int, Boolean)] == (1, true))
assert(scanner.tillEndOfLine() == " 2 3")
assert(!scanner.hasNext)

你甚至可以写定制的Scanner。

文件监控

普通的Java文件监控:

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import java.nio.file.{StandardWatchEventKinds => EventType}
val service: java.nio.file.WatchService = myDir.newWatchService
myDir.register(service, events = Seq(EventType.ENTRY_CREATE, EventType.ENTRY_DELETE))

better-files抽象了一个简单的接口:

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val watcher = new ThreadBackedFileMonitor(myDir, recursive = true) {
override def onCreate(file: File) = println(s"$file got created")
override def onModify(file: File) = println(s"$file got modified")
override def onDelete(file: File) = println(s"$file got deleted")
}
watcher.start()

或者用下面的写法:

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import java.nio.file.{Path, StandardWatchEventKinds => EventType, WatchEvent}
val watcher = new ThreadBackedFileMonitor(myDir, recursive = true) {
override def dispatch(eventType: WatchEvent.Kind[Path], file: File) = eventType match {
case EventType.ENTRY_CREATE => println(s"$file got created")
case EventType.ENTRY_MODIFY => println(s"$file got modified")
case EventType.ENTRY_DELETE => println(s"$file got deleted")
}
}

Akka 风格的文件监控

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import akka.actor.{ActorRef, ActorSystem}
import better.files._, FileWatcher._
implicit val system = ActorSystem("mySystem")
val watcher: ActorRef = (home/"Downloads").newWatcher(recursive = true)
// register partial function for an event
watcher ! on(EventType.ENTRY_DELETE) {
case file if file.isDirectory => println(s"$file got deleted")
}
// watch for multiple events
watcher ! when(events = EventType.ENTRY_CREATE, EventType.ENTRY_MODIFY) {
case (EventType.ENTRY_CREATE, file) => println(s"$file got created")
case (EventType.ENTRY_MODIFY, file) => println(s"$file got modified")
}
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