Java序列化框架性能比较

jvm-serializers提供了一个很好的比较各种Java序列化的的测试套件。 它罗列了各种序列化框架, 可以自动生成测试报告。
我在AWS c3.xlarge机器上进行了测试,一下是测试报告与解析。

关键的测试数据的统计代码如下:

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public double runWithTimeMeasurement(int timeMillis, TestCase tc, int iterations) throws Exception
{
long start = System.currentTimeMillis();
double sumTime = 0;
int count = 0;
System.err.println("test-time "+timeMillis+" iteration "+iterations);
while ( System.currentTimeMillis()-start < timeMillis )
{
double time = tc.run(transformer, serializer, value, iterations);
sumTime += time;
measurementVals[count] = time;
count++;
}
double avg = sumTime / count;
Arrays.sort(measurementVals,0,count);
System.err.println("-----------------------------------------------------------------------------");
System.err.println(serializer.getName());
System.err.println("min:" + measurementVals[0]);
System.err.println("1/4:"+measurementVals[count/4]);
System.err.println("1/2:"+measurementVals[count/2]);
System.err.println("3/4:"+measurementVals[count/4*3]);
System.err.println("max:"+measurementVals[count-1]);
System.err.println("average:"+ avg +" deviation:"+(avg-measurementVals[count/2]));
System.err.println("-----------------------------------------------------------------------------");
return avg;
}

测试时序列化和反序列化会迭代多次,默认2000次。 测试会有一个限定时间,一轮测试完成后时间还有的话还会继续新的一轮的测试。 因此, 由于不同的框架花费的时间不同, 测试的轮数也不一样。

测试平台

OS:Linux (CentOS 6.4)
JVM:JDK 1.7.0_17
CPU: c3.xlarge
Cores (incl HT):4

免责声明

本测试主要关注无循环引用的数据结构, 但是如此众多的序列化框架还是各有不同:

  • 有些支持循环引用检测
  • 有些会输出全部的元数据,有些不会
  • 有些支持跨平台,有些只支持特定的编程语言
  • 有些是基于文本的,有些却基于二进制
  • 有些支持向前向后兼容, 有些只支持向前或者向后,有些全部不支持

(查看ToolBehavior页面以了解一些框架的特性)
尽管别的测试数据可能会生成不同的测试结果(例如在每个字符串中增加非ascii字符), 此测试还是会提供一个各个序列化框架的性能的原始估计。

序列化框架Serializers(无共享引用)

  • 无循环引用。 一个对象如果被引用两次则会序列化两次
  • 没有手工优化
  • schema预先已知

Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)
Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)

Size, Compressed in bytes
Size, Compressed  in bytes

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pre. create ser deser total size +dfl
protostuff 112 663 917 1580 239 150
fst-flat-pre 81 908 984 1893 251 165
kryo-flat-pre 81 831 1083 1914 212 132
protobuf 149 1625 942 2567 239 149
msgpack-databind 81 1123 1821 2944 233 146
thrift-compact 139 1844 1101 2945 240 148
json/fastjson/databind 82 1710 1633 3343 486 262
thrift 139 2216 1253 3469 349 197
scala/sbinary 166 2122 1451 3573 255 147
smile/jackson+afterburner/databind 81 1757 1868 3625 352 252
smile/jackson/databind 81 2095 2250 4346 338 241
json/jackson+afterburner/databind 81 2006 2548 4554 485 261
json/protostuff-runtime 80 2008 2741 4748 469 243
json/jackson/databind 80 2173 2972 5145 485 261
json/jackson-jr/databind 81 2282 3435 5716 468 255
cbor/jackson/databind 81 4112 2659 6771 397 246
xml/jackson/databind 81 3558 7028 10585 683 286
json/gson/databind 81 7322 7063 14386 486 259
bson/jackson/databind 80 6974 8318 15291 506 286
xml/xstream+c 81 9050 28265 37315 487 244
xml/exi-manual 83 19634 18063 37697 337 327
json/javax-tree/glassfish 1558 16804 23814 40618 485 263
java-built-in 82 7154 37804 44958 889 514
scala/java-built-in 164 11195 62423 73617 1312 700
json/protobuf 142 11815 73133 84949 488 253
json/json-lib/databind 81 45857 165134 210991 485 263

全对象图序列化框架Full Object Graph Serializers

  • 支持全部的object graph读写. Object graph可能包含循环引用.
  • 无预先处理, 没有预先的类生成,注册. 所有都运行时产生, 比如使用反射.
  • 注意通常不会跨编程语言。 然而JSON/XML格式由于其特殊性可以跨语言.

Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)
Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)

Size, Compressed [light] in bytes
Size, Compressed in bytes

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pre. create ser deser total size +dfl
protostuff-graph 112 946 963 1909 239 150
protostuff-graph-runtime 82 1187 1208 2395 241 151
kryo-serializer 81 2091 1858 3949 286 188
fst 81 2075 2041 4116 316 203
jboss-marshalling-river-ct 81 4057 2810 6867 298 199
hessian 80 6683 7234 13917 501 313
jboss-serialization 83 9529 8508 18036 932 582
jboss-marshalling-river 81 5915 28347 34261 694 400
java-built-in-serializer 81 7273 36274 43547 889 514
stephenerialization 59 8396 37359 45756 1093 517
jboss-marshalling-serial 80 15148 39180 54328 856 498
yaml/jackson/databind 82 25969 41084 67053 505 260
json/flexjson/databind 81 25717 61700 87417 503 273

跨语言二进制序列化框架cross Lang Binary Serializers

  • 无循环引用
  • schema预先已知

Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)
Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)

Size, Compressed in bytes
Size, Compressed in bytes

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pre. create ser deser total size +dfl
protobuf/protostuff 113 695 927 1622 239 149
protobuf/protostuff-runtime 81 971 1105 2075 241 150
protobuf 149 1625 942 2567 239 149
msgpack-databind 81 1123 1821 2944 233 146
thrift-compact 139 1844 1101 2945 240 148
thrift 139 2216 1253 3469 349 197
cbor/jackson/databind 81 4112 2659 6771 397 246
hessian 80 6683 7234 13917 501 313
bson/jackson/databind 80 6974 8318 15291 506 286

XML/JSon序列化框架

  • 基于文本
  • Mixed regarding required preparation, object graph awareness (references).

Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)
Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)

Size, Compressed in bytes
Size, Compressed in bytes

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pre. create ser deser total size +dfl
json/fastjson/databind 82 1710 1633 3343 486 262
json/jackson+afterburner/databind 81 2006 2548 4554 485 261
json/protostuff-runtime 80 2008 2741 4748 469 243
json/jackson/databind 80 2173 2972 5145 485 261
json/jackson-jr/databind 81 2282 3435 5716 468 255
xml/jackson/databind 81 3558 7028 10585 683 286
json/gson/databind 81 7322 7063 14386 486 259
xml/xstream+c 81 9050 28265 37315 487 244
xml/exi-manual 83 19634 18063 37697 337 327
json/javax-tree/glassfish 1558 16804 23814 40618 485 263
yaml/jackson/databind 82 25969 41084 67053 505 260
json/protobuf 142 11815 73133 84949 488 253
json/flexjson/databind 81 25717 61700 87417 503 273
json/json-lib/databind 81 45857 165134 210991 485 263

手工优化的序列化框架Manually optimized Serializers

Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)
Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)

Size, Compressed in bytes
Size, Compressed in bytes

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pre. create ser deser total size +dfl
kryo-manual 81 670 792 1462 211 131
protostuff-manual 81 608 915 1523 239 150
wobly 48 1147 701 1848 251 151
kryo-opt 81 837 1059 1896 209 129
wobly-compact 48 1175 748 1923 225 139
java-manual 80 1341 848 2190 255 147
smile/jackson/manual 82 1270 1476 2746 341 244
msgpack-manual 80 1141 1668 2809 233 146
json/jackson/manual 83 1467 1949 3416 468 253
jboss-marshalling-river-ct-manual 82 2314 1586 3900 289 167
avro-generic 488 2485 1527 4012 221 133
avro-specific 118 2191 1916 4108 221 133
json/protostuff-manual 81 1757 2472 4229 449 233
cbor/jackson/manual 80 3659 1667 5326 386 238
xml/aalto-manual 82 2724 3902 6626 653 304
jboss-marshalling-river-manual 81 2967 5620 8587 483 240
json/gson/manual 81 4798 5826 10624 468 253
xml/woodstox-manual 81 4801 6355 11156 653 304
json/json-smart/manual-tree 82 7623 5110 12733 495 269
json/gson/manual-tree 82 7234 8202 15437 485 259
xml/fastinfo-manual 81 8406 7207 15613 377 284
xml/javolution/manual 80 6781 10766 17547 504 263
json/json.simple/manual 81 7394 10923 18317 495 269
json/org.json/manual-tree 81 8368 10959 19327 485 259
json/svenson/databind 81 5956 14026 19981 495 269
xml/xstream+c-aalto 81 5641 14743 20384 525 273
xml/xstream+c-fastinfo 81 10471 11640 22111 345 264
bson/mongodb/manual 81 4283 19559 23842 495 278
xml/xstream+c-woodstox 80 7326 18877 26203 525 273
json/javax-stream/glassfish 81 12791 21756 34547 468 253
json/jsonij/manual-jpath 83 38635 15094 53729 478 257
json/argo/manual-tree 81 85473 19416 104889 485 263

特性对性能的影响Cost of features

shows performance vs convenience of manually-selected libs.

  • 循环引用, schema预知,手工优化cycle free, schema known at compile time, manual optimization: kryo-manual, msgpack-manual
  • 循环引用, schema预知cycle free, schema known at compile time: protostuff, fst-flat-pre, kryo-flat-pre. (note: protostuff uses class generation while the other two just require a list of classes to be written)
  • 循环引用, schema编译时未知 cycle free, schema UNKNOWN at compile time: fst-flat, kryo-flat, protostuff-runtime, msgpack-databind
  • 全图读写,schema编译时未知 full object graph awareness, schema UNKNOWN at compile time: fst, kryo.

Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)
Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)

Size, Compressed in bytes
Size, Compressed in bytes

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pre. create ser deser total size +dfl
kryo-manual 81 670 792 1462 211 131
protostuff 112 663 917 1580 239 150
fst-flat-pre 81 908 984 1893 251 165
kryo-flat-pre 81 831 1083 1914 212 132
protostuff-runtime 82 839 1104 1943 241 151
kryo-flat 81 1037 1468 2505 268 177
fst-flat 81 1230 1469 2700 314 204
msgpack-manual 80 1141 1668 2809 233 146
msgpack-databind 81 1123 1821 2944 233 146
kryo-serializer 81 2091 1858 3949 286 188
fst 81 2075 2041 4116 316 203

全部的测试结果

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pre. create ser deser total size +dfl
kryo-manual 81 670 792 1462 211 131
protostuff-manual 81 608 915 1523 239 150
protostuff 112 663 917 1580 239 150
protobuf/protostuff 113 695 927 1622 239 149
wobly 48 1147 701 1848 251 151
fst-flat-pre 81 908 984 1893 251 165
kryo-opt 81 837 1059 1896 209 129
protostuff-graph 112 946 963 1909 239 150
kryo-flat-pre 81 831 1083 1914 212 132
wobly-compact 48 1175 748 1923 225 139
protostuff-runtime 82 839 1104 1943 241 151
protobuf/protostuff-runtime 81 971 1105 2075 241 150
java-manual 80 1341 848 2190 255 147
protostuff-graph-runtime 82 1187 1208 2395 241 151
kryo-flat 81 1037 1468 2505 268 177
protobuf 149 1625 942 2567 239 149
fst-flat 81 1230 1469 2700 314 204
smile/jackson/manual 82 1270 1476 2746 341 244
msgpack-manual 80 1141 1668 2809 233 146
msgpack-databind 81 1123 1821 2944 233 146
thrift-compact 139 1844 1101 2945 240 148
json/fastjson/databind 82 1710 1633 3343 486 262
json/jackson/manual 83 1467 1949 3416 468 253
thrift 139 2216 1253 3469 349 197
scala/sbinary 166 2122 1451 3573 255 147
smile/jackson+afterburner/databind 81 1757 1868 3625 352 252
jboss-marshalling-river-ct-manual 82 2314 1586 3900 289 167
kryo-serializer 81 2091 1858 3949 286 188
avro-generic 488 2485 1527 4012 221 133
avro-specific 118 2191 1916 4108 221 133
fst 81 2075 2041 4116 316 203
json/protostuff-manual 81 1757 2472 4229 449 233
smile/jackson/databind 81 2095 2250 4346 338 241
json/jackson+afterburner/databind 81 2006 2548 4554 485 261
json/protostuff-runtime 80 2008 2741 4748 469 243
json/jackson/databind 80 2173 2972 5145 485 261
cbor/jackson/manual 80 3659 1667 5326 386 238
json/jackson-jr/databind 81 2282 3435 5716 468 255
xml/aalto-manual 82 2724 3902 6626 653 304
cbor/jackson/databind 81 4112 2659 6771 397 246
jboss-marshalling-river-ct 81 4057 2810 6867 298 199
jboss-marshalling-river-manual 81 2967 5620 8587 483 240
xml/jackson/databind 81 3558 7028 10585 683 286
json/gson/manual 81 4798 5826 10624 468 253
xml/woodstox-manual 81 4801 6355 11156 653 304
json/json-smart/manual-tree 82 7623 5110 12733 495 269
hessian 80 6683 7234 13917 501 313
json/gson/databind 81 7322 7063 14386 486 259
bson/jackson/databind 80 6974 8318 15291 506 286
json/gson/manual-tree 82 7234 8202 15437 485 259
xml/fastinfo-manual 81 8406 7207 15613 377 284
xml/javolution/manual 80 6781 10766 17547 504 263
jboss-serialization 83 9529 8508 18036 932 582
json/json.simple/manual 81 7394 10923 18317 495 269
json/org.json/manual-tree 81 8368 10959 19327 485 259
json/svenson/databind 81 5956 14026 19981 495 269
xml/xstream+c-aalto 81 5641 14743 20384 525 273
xml/xstream+c-fastinfo 81 10471 11640 22111 345 264
bson/mongodb/manual 81 4283 19559 23842 495 278
xml/xstream+c-woodstox 80 7326 18877 26203 525 273
jboss-marshalling-river 81 5915 28347 34261 694 400
json/javax-stream/glassfish 81 12791 21756 34547 468 253
xml/xstream+c 81 9050 28265 37315 487 244
xml/exi-manual 83 19634 18063 37697 337 327
json/javax-tree/glassfish 1558 16804 23814 40618 485 263
java-built-in-serializer 81 7273 36274 43547 889 514
java-built-in 82 7154 37804 44958 889 514
stephenerialization 59 8396 37359 45756 1093 517
json/jsonij/manual-jpath 83 38635 15094 53729 478 257
jboss-marshalling-serial 80 15148 39180 54328 856 498
yaml/jackson/databind 82 25969 41084 67053 505 260
scala/java-built-in 164 11195 62423 73617 1312 700
json/protobuf 142 11815 73133 84949 488 253
json/flexjson/databind 81 25717 61700 87417 503 273
json/argo/manual-tree 81 85473 19416 104889 485 263
json/json-lib/databind 81 45857 165134 210991 485 263
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pre. Effort Format Structure Misc
kryo-manual MANUAL_OPT BINARY FLAT_TREE [] manually optimized
protostuff-manual MANUAL_OPT BINARY FLAT_TREE [] manual
protostuff CLASSES_KNOWN BINARY FLAT_TREE [] generated code
protobuf/protostuff CLASSES_KNOWN BIN_CROSSLANG FLAT_TREE [] protobuf + generated code
wobly MANUAL_OPT BINARY FLAT_TREE []
fst-flat-pre CLASSES_KNOWN BINARY FLAT_TREE [] fst in unshared mode with preregistered classes
kryo-opt MANUAL_OPT BINARY FLAT_TREE [] manually optimized
protostuff-graph CLASSES_KNOWN BINARY FULL_GRAPH [] graph + generated code
kryo-flat-pre CLASSES_KNOWN BINARY FLAT_TREE [] no shared refs, preregistered classes
wobly-compact MANUAL_OPT BINARY FLAT_TREE []
protostuff-runtime ZERO_KNOWLEDGE BINARY FLAT_TREE [] reflection
protobuf/protostuff-runtime ZERO_KNOWLEDGE BIN_CROSSLANG FLAT_TREE [] protobuf + reflection
java-manual MANUAL_OPT BINARY FLAT_TREE []
protostuff-graph-runtime ZERO_KNOWLEDGE BINARY FULL_GRAPH [] graph + reflection
kryo-flat ZERO_KNOWLEDGE BINARY FLAT_TREE [] default, no shared refs
protobuf CLASSES_KNOWN BIN_CROSSLANG FLAT_TREE []
fst-flat ZERO_KNOWLEDGE BINARY FLAT_TREE [] fst default, but unshared mode
smile/jackson/manual MANUAL_OPT BINARY FLAT_TREE []
msgpack-manual MANUAL_OPT BIN_CROSSLANG FLAT_TREE []
msgpack-databind CLASSES_KNOWN BIN_CROSSLANG FLAT_TREE []
thrift-compact CLASSES_KNOWN BIN_CROSSLANG FLAT_TREE []
json/fastjson/databind ZERO_KNOWLEDGE JSON FLAT_TREE []
json/jackson/manual MANUAL_OPT JSON FLAT_TREE []
thrift CLASSES_KNOWN BIN_CROSSLANG FLAT_TREE []
scala/sbinary MISC MISC UNKNOWN [] null
smile/jackson+afterburner/databind ZERO_KNOWLEDGE BINARY FLAT_TREE []
jboss-marshalling-river-ct-manual MANUAL_OPT BINARY FULL_GRAPH [] full graph preregistered classes, manual optimization
kryo-serializer ZERO_KNOWLEDGE BINARY FULL_GRAPH [] default
avro-generic MANUAL_OPT BIN_CROSSLANG FLAT_TREE []
avro-specific MANUAL_OPT BIN_CROSSLANG UNKNOWN []
fst ZERO_KNOWLEDGE BINARY FULL_GRAPH [] default: JDK serialization drop-in-replacement mode
json/protostuff-manual MANUAL_OPT JSON FLAT_TREE [] json + manual
smile/jackson/databind ZERO_KNOWLEDGE BINARY FLAT_TREE []
json/jackson+afterburner/databind ZERO_KNOWLEDGE JSON FLAT_TREE [] uses bytecode generation to reduce overhead
json/protostuff-runtime ZERO_KNOWLEDGE JSON FLAT_TREE [] json + reflection
json/jackson/databind ZERO_KNOWLEDGE JSON FLAT_TREE []
cbor/jackson/manual MANUAL_OPT BIN_CROSSLANG FLAT_TREE []
json/jackson-jr/databind ZERO_KNOWLEDGE JSON FLAT_TREE []
xml/aalto-manual MANUAL_OPT XML UNKNOWN []
cbor/jackson/databind ZERO_KNOWLEDGE BIN_CROSSLANG FLAT_TREE []
jboss-marshalling-river-ct CLASSES_KNOWN BINARY FULL_GRAPH [] full graph with preregistered classes
jboss-marshalling-river-manual MANUAL_OPT BINARY FULL_GRAPH [] full graph with manual optimizations
xml/jackson/databind ZERO_KNOWLEDGE XML FLAT_TREE []
json/gson/manual MANUAL_OPT JSON FLAT_TREE []
xml/woodstox-manual MANUAL_OPT XML UNKNOWN []
json/json-smart/manual-tree MANUAL_OPT JSON FLAT_TREE []
hessian ZERO_KNOWLEDGE BIN_CROSSLANG FULL_GRAPH []
json/gson/databind ZERO_KNOWLEDGE JSON FLAT_TREE []
bson/jackson/databind CLASSES_KNOWN BIN_CROSSLANG FLAT_TREE []
json/gson/manual-tree MANUAL_OPT JSON FLAT_TREE []
xml/fastinfo-manual MANUAL_OPT XML UNKNOWN []
xml/javolution/manual MANUAL_OPT XML FLAT_TREE []
jboss-serialization ZERO_KNOWLEDGE BINARY FULL_GRAPH []
json/json.simple/manual MANUAL_OPT JSON FLAT_TREE []
json/org.json/manual-tree MANUAL_OPT JSON FLAT_TREE []
json/svenson/databind MANUAL_OPT JSON FLAT_TREE []
xml/xstream+c-aalto MANUAL_OPT XML FLAT_TREE []
xml/xstream+c-fastinfo MANUAL_OPT XML FLAT_TREE []
bson/mongodb/manual MANUAL_OPT BIN_CROSSLANG FLAT_TREE []
xml/xstream+c-woodstox MANUAL_OPT XML FLAT_TREE []
jboss-marshalling-river ZERO_KNOWLEDGE BINARY FULL_GRAPH [] full graph zero knowledge
json/javax-stream/glassfish MANUAL_OPT JSON FLAT_TREE []
xml/xstream+c ZERO_KNOWLEDGE XML FLAT_TREE []
xml/exi-manual ZERO_KNOWLEDGE XML UNKNOWN []
json/javax-tree/glassfish ZERO_KNOWLEDGE JSON FLAT_TREE []
java-built-in-serializer ZERO_KNOWLEDGE BINARY FULL_GRAPH []
java-built-in ZERO_KNOWLEDGE BINARY FLAT_TREE []
stephenerialization ZERO_KNOWLEDGE BINARY FULL_GRAPH [] null
json/jsonij/manual-jpath MANUAL_OPT JSON FLAT_TREE []
jboss-marshalling-serial ZERO_KNOWLEDGE BINARY FULL_GRAPH []
yaml/jackson/databind ZERO_KNOWLEDGE JSON FULL_GRAPH []
scala/java-built-in MISC MISC UNKNOWN [] null
json/protobuf CLASSES_KNOWN JSON FLAT_TREE []
json/flexjson/databind ZERO_KNOWLEDGE JSON FULL_GRAPH []
json/argo/manual-tree MANUAL_OPT JSON FLAT_TREE []
json/json-lib/databind ZERO_KNOWLEDGE JSON FLAT_TREE []
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